Letter of Intent

A ‘letter of intent’ merely indicates a party’s intention to enter into a contract with the other party in future. No binding relationship between the parties at this stage emerges and the totality of the circumstances have to be considered in each case. It is no doubt possible to construe a ‘letter of intent’ as […]

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Compoundable

Analyzing decisions [Biswabahan Das v. Gopen Chandra Hazarika, AIR 1967 SC 895; Sheonandan Paswan v. State of Bihar, (1987) 1 SCC 288], it is evident, legislative sanction for compounding of offences is based upon two contrasting principles: first, private parties should be allowed to settle a dispute between them at any stage (with or without […]

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Original-Allottee, Subsequent-Purchaser

Ms. Madhabi Venkatraman, Original-Allottee, could not continue to wait indefinitely for delivery of Flat No. 7013 in Nectarine Tower, Parx Laurete at Section 108, Expressway, Noida. She requested transfer in favor of Respondent-Purchaser. She felt compelled to sell. It was then Respondent-Purchaser stepped in. The nature and extent of relief, to which a Subsequent-Purchaser can […]

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Cancellation of Bail

Section 389(1), CrPC allows Court to release a convicted person on bail. The factors that govern grant of suspension of sentence under Section 389(1) have been discussed by this Court in Atul Tripathi v. State of U.P., (2014) 9 SCC 177. Ramji Prasad v. Rattan Kumar Jaiswal, (2002) 9 SCC 366 observed, in cases involving […]

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Referred to Larger Bench XII Answered: Doctrine of Relation Back in Admissions

The view, the only relief which can be granted would be compensation only [Chandigarh Administration v. Jasmine Kaur, (2014) 10 SCC 521], is not good law and cannot be accepted. – Hon’ble Justice M.R. Shah [Three-Judge Bench], S. Krishna Sradha v. The State of Andhra Pradesh, AIR 2020 SC 47. _____ The proposition of law […]

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Section 482 of The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 V / Supremacy of Ballot v. Authority of Police

Neeharika Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. v. State of Maharashtra (2021) SCC Online SC 315 reiterates the parameters laid down in the celebrated decision of State of Haryana v. Bhajan Lal, 1992 Supp (1) SCC 335. Seven Principles enunciated in Paragraph 102 of Bhajan Lal [Two-­Member Bench] are actually quoted with approval in Neeharika [Three-M­ember Bench]. Paragraph […]

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Promissory Estoppel VII

The New Okhla Industrial Development Authority is constituted under provisions of The U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976. Regulation 25 of The New Okhla Industrial Development Authority Service Regulations, 1981 states, the age of superannuation of employees. Any enhancement of the age of superannuation would require an amendment of the Service Regulations necessitating prior approval […]

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The Revival of Ray LXVII

State of J&K v. Triloki Nath Khosa, (1974) 1 SCC 19 explained, a classification for the purpose of Article 14 (as the present minimum age criteria undoubtedly is, in the present case) based on any criteria, must be based on a distinct characteristic, having a rational nexus with the object of the norm, or the […]

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Be Kind Rewind, Strict Liability

“The Strict Liability Rule under Common Law is a relic of the past and should not be given effect in the Indian context.” – Justice Mohan M. Shantanagoudar, Taj Mahal Hotel v. United India Insurance Co. Ltd., (2020) 2 SCC 224. _____ There is certainly a phantom thread concerning the Rule of Strict Liability and […]

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Facebook India

The technological age has produced digital platforms – not like the railway platforms where trains were regulated on arrival and departure. These digital platforms can be imminently uncontrollable at times and carry their own challenges. One form of digital platforms are the intermediaries that claim to be providing a platform for exchange of ideas without […]

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May & Shall II

It is to be considered whether the word ‘shall’ used in Section 12 of The Disaster Management Act, 2005 is required to be interpreted and considered as ‘shall’ or ‘may’ and whether it is ‘mandatory’ or ‘directory/discretionary’. The word ‘shall’ is used twice. Cases are not wanting where the words ‘may’, ‘shall’ and ‘must’ are […]

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Retrospective Validating Statute

A competent Legislature can always validate a law which has been declared by Courts to be invalid, provided the infirmities and vitiating factors noticed in the declaratory Judgment are removed or cured. Such a validating law can also be made retrospective. All that Legislature does is to usher in a valid law with retrospective effect […]

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Dialogic Jurisdiction II

COVID-19 engulfed this country in March, 2020 and continues till date changing its face from time to time. Different mutations in the virus have made it dangerous and fatal at times. To provide food security to impoverished persons is the bounden duty of all States and Governments. Those migrant workers who possess a ration card […]

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Section 364A, Indian Penal Code

The first essential condition as incorporated in Section 364A is: “whoever kidnaps or abducts any person or keeps a person in detention after such kidnapping or abduction.” The second condition begins with conjunction ‘and’. The second condition has also two parts, i.e., (a) threatens to cause death or hurt to such person or (b) by […]

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Neena and Vivian

While we were still shooting for Batwara, I attended a dinner party hosted by the Maharani of Jaipur with a few other members of the cast. A few players from the West Indies Cricket Team were also on the guest list, including their Captain at that time, Vivian Richards. I have always been crazy about […]

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Wooing and Marriage

Devdutt Pattanaik, Marriage – 100 Stories, (Rupa, 2021) has stories on – I. Origin, II. Singledom, III. Wooing, IV. Fidelity, V. Multiplicity, VI. Children, VII. Property, VIII. Barriers, IX. Heartbreak and X. Coupledom. The following is extracted from ‘III. Wooing’. Agastya Finds a Source of Income Rishi Agastya had to repay his debt to Ancestors […]

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Framed Terrorist

Although for me the idea of going to Pakistan was an exciting one it was not at all something out of the ordinary for the people in our neighborhood. It was a bright day in November when I set off to get my Passport and Visa from the Pakistan High Commission. I was accosted by […]

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