The Nature of Judicial Power: Pegasus

“If you want to keep a secret, you must also hide it from yourself.” ­- George Orwell, 1984. Orwellian concern. September, 2018 – Citizen Lab released software capabilities of a ‘spyware suite’ called Pegasus, produced by NSO Group. Historically, privacy rights have been ‘property centric’ rather than ‘people centric’. In 1604, in Semayne’s case, 77 […]

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Section 511, Indian Penal Code

There is a visible distinction between ‘preparation’ and ‘attempt’ to commit an offence and it all depends on statutory edict coupled with nature of evidence produced in a case; stage of ‘preparation’ consists of deliberation, devising or arranging means or measures, which would be necessary; an ‘attempt’ starts immediately after completion of ‘preparation’; ‘preparation’ or […]

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Blood of Human Origin III

Two-Judges in Kansa Behra v. State of Orissa, (1987) 3 SCC 480 observed, “few small blood-stains on clothes of a person may even be of his own blood.” Do remember one Raghav, who had earlier been convicted of murdering his First Wife and Son, based on circumstantial evidence. Dead bodies were/are still missing. Relevant Serologist […]

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The Rules of The Game Principle III

As was subtly recognized, State of Haryana v. Subash Chander Marwaha, (1974) 3 SCC 220, unnoticed in P.K. Ramachandra Iyer, Durgacharan Misra, Umesh Chandra Shukla, Rajendra Bhimrao Mandve and K. Manjusree, carries instructions on the Tej Prakash Pathak issue. Subash Chander Marwaha is crucial to understand the time when the ‘process of ascertaining eligibility’, before […]

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Investigation II

Gauri Lankesh was shot dead by unknown assailants, near her house at Rajarajeshwari Nagar [Bengaluru], on 05.09.2017. _____  This is limited to consideration of whether prior approval by Commissioner of Police [Bengaluru City], in connection with offence registered as Crime No. 221/2017, is valid or otherwise. We hold, same does not suffer from any infirmity. […]

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Investigation I

H N Rishbud v. State of Delhi, (1955) 1 SCR 1150; Ramsinh Bavaji Jadeja v. State of Gujarat, (1994) 2 SCC 685; Union of India v. Prakash P. Hinduja, (2003) 6 SCC 195. What emerges is, an investigation commences upon receipt of information by Police which discloses commission of a cognizable offence. However, mere receipt […]

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Do note, Mota Bhagwan Asaram was also convicted under Section 377, IPC. The Prisons (Bombay Furlough and Parole) Rules, 1959 were made pursuant to Section 59 of The Prisons Act, 1894 and are applicable in State of Gujarat. State of Maharashtra v. Suresh Pandurang Darvakar, (2006) 4 SCC 776 distinguished parole from furlough. The difference […]

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Settlement Deed Cheque

This is a case of cheques, issued pursuant to a deed of compromise, being dishonoured. The dishonour of cheques, issued subsequent to a settlement agreement, would give rise to a fresh cause of action attracting liability under Section 138 and other remedies under civil law and criminal law. A contrary interpretation would lead to contradictory […]

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It emerges from decisions: Appellate Court may direct a retrial only in ‘exceptional’ circumstances to avert a miscarriage of justice; mere lapses in investigation are not sufficient to warrant a direction for retrial; only if lapses are so grave so as to prejudice, can a retrial be directed; determination of whether a ‘shoddy’ investigation/trial has […]

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Lalita Kumari III

Lalita Kumari v. Govt. of U.P., (2014) 2 SCC 1 was analyzed by a Three-Judge Bench in Yashwant Sinha v. CBI, (2020) 2 SCC 338. Two-Judge Bench in State of Telangana v. Managipet, (2019) 19 SCC 87 noted, while Lalita Kumari held a preliminary enquiry was desirable in cases of alleged corruption, that does not […]

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Section 141, The NI Act II

In light of S.M.S. Pharmaceuticals Ltd. v. Neeta Bhalla, (2005) 8 SCC 89 in addition to asserting Directors are in-charge and responsible for conduct of business, if statutory compliance of Section 141 has been made – it is not open for High Courts to interfere under Section 482, CrPC unless it comes across some unimpeachable, incontrovertible […]

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Environmental Jurisprudence

Estragon:  Let’s go. Vladimir: We can’t. Estragon: Why not? Vladimir: We’re waiting for Godot. Samuel Beckett, Waiting for Godot, 1954. Let us now hark back to Waiting for Godot… with which, we started. National Green Tribunal must act, if exigencies so demand, without indefinitely waiting for metaphorical Godot to knock on its portal. NGT is […]

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The Doctrine of Fairness

The word ‘laches’ is derived from French, meaning “remissness and slackness”. A defence of laches can only be allowed when there is no statutory bar. The question as to whether there exists a clear case of laches is one of fact and so also of prejudice. The said principle may not have any application when […]

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Fraud in Child Custody

Perry holds dual citizenship of Kenya as well as United Kingdom. Perry flagrantly violated solemn undertakings and challenged jurisdiction of Indian Courts, despite having submitted. It is fundamental, a party approaching Court must come with clean hands, more so in child custody matters [S.P. Chengalvaraya Naidu v. Jagannath, (1994) 1 SCC 1; Indian Bank v. […]

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Nature’s Gifts

Suresh Lohiya v. State of Maharashtra, (1996) 10 SCC 397 struck a discordant note, drawing a distinction between ‘nature’s gifts’ such as charcoal, mahua flowers or minerals and articles produced with aid of human labour which, according to it, was not included in ‘forest produce’ under The Kerala Forest Act, 1961. Suresh Lohiya did not […]

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Suitability of Candidate III / Honourable Acquittal II

Sessions Court acquitted Methu Meda from charge of kidnapping for ransom. Methu Meda applied for post of Constable in Central Industrial Security Force and got selected through Staff Selection Commission. A mere disclosure of offences alleged and result of trial is not sufficient. In said situation, appointment cannot be compelled.   The expression ‘honourable acquittal’ […]

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Groundnuts to Europe

There were two sets of consignments, one to Piraeus, Greece and another to Rotterdam, Netherlands. Learned Senior Counsel, Gopal Sankaranarayanan argued, SGS India Ltd. had no control or responsibility of shipment-subject once it left Indian port. Ravneet Singh Bagga v. KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, (2000) 1 SCC 66 held, burden of proving ‘deficiency in service’ […]

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