Exclusion of Votes

Constitution Bench in Konappa Rudrappa Nadgouda v. Viswanath Reddy, AIR 1969 SC 604 cautioned, the rule for exclusion of votes, secured by corrupt practices by the returned candidate, in the computation of the total votes and the consequential declaration of the candidate who secured the next highest number of votes as duly elected, can be […]

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Day-Fraction

There can be no doubt, the principle which appears to have evolved over a period of time is, the law frowns upon determining a day with reference to its fractions. The principle, ‘fractions of the day’ are eschewed from consideration, is not a universal principle which knows no exceptions. Clearly the context and the purpose […]

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Consortium II

“Magma General Insurance Company Ltd., (2018) 18 SCC 130 explained the concept of ‘consortium’. United India Insurance Company Ltd. v. Satvinder Kaur, (2020) SCC Online 410 reaffirmed the view. Three-Judge Bench further laid down that, ‘loss of love and affection’ is comprehended in ‘loss of consortium’. Hence, there is no justification to award compensation towards […]

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Act of Transformation

Most jurists draw distinction between ‘direct application’ of treaties in domestic law, and national legal systems that mandate and require ‘act of transformation’ for an international treaty to apply and be a part of domestic law; ‘direct application’ means and mandates that the treaty norms, either wholly or to some extent, are directly treated as […]

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The Doctrine of Mutuality II

“The Doctrine of Mutuality traces its origin from the basic principle that a man cannot engage into a business with himself. “When a number of individuals agree to contribute funds for a common purpose and stipulate that their contributions so far as not required for that purpose shall be repaid to them, I cannot conceive […]

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The Doctrine of Frustration of Contract I / Section 56 of The Indian Contract Act, 1872 III

“This Court in Satyabrata Ghose v. Mugneeram Bangur & Co., AIR 1954 SC 44 considered the applicability of Sections 32 and 56 while considering the Doctrine of Frustration of Contract. Naihati Jute Mills Ltd. v. Khyaliram Jagannath, AIR 1968 SC 522 held, if the contract contains implied or expressly a term according to which it […]

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Promissory Estoppel V

Kasinka Trading v. Union of India, (1995) 1 SCC 274. Shrijee Sales Corporation v. Union of India, (1997) 3 SCC 398. STO v. Shree Durga Oil Mills, (1998) 1 SCC 572. State of Rajasthan v. Mahaveer Oil Industries, (1999) 4 SCC 357. Shree Sidhbali Steels Ltd. v. State of U.P., (2011) 3 SCC 193. “This […]

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Generalia Specialibus Non Derogant

“The maxim is quite well-known. The rule flowing from the maxim ‘generalia specialibus non derogant’ has been i) considered in Hari Shankar Jain, (1978) 4 SCC 16 and ii) explained in Mary Seward v. Owner of “Vera Cruz”, (1884) 10 AC 59, 68. “Where there are general words in a later legislation capable of reasonable […]

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The Plea of Limitation XII: Written Statements, District Consumer Forums II

“By specifically enacting a provision under Sub­-Section (3) of Section 13, with a specific clarification that violation of the principles of natural justice shall not be called in question where the procedure prescribed under Sub-­Sections (1) and (2) of Section 13 of The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 has been followed or complied with, the intention […]

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Per Incuriam III

Five Judges in Dr. Shah Faesal v. Union of India, [Writ Petition (Civil) No. 1099 of 2019] have decided the following. “The rule of per incuriam means a Judgment passed in ignorance of a relevant statute or any other binding authority [See, Young v. Bristol Aeroplane Co. Ltd., 1944 KB 718 (CA)]. The view that […]

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123 Netaji 123

Supreme Court of India understands, Mahatma Gandhi > Bharat Ratna. Once upon a time, specifically on 23.01.1992, a press communique was issued from Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi to the following effect: “The President is pleased to confer the award of Bharat Ratna posthumously on Shri Subhash Chandra Bose.” It was contended before SC that, when […]

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Section 2(33), The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

Section 2(33), The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015: “heinous offences” includes the offences for which the minimum punishment under The Indian Penal Code, 1860 or any other law for the time being in force is imprisonment for 7 years or more; xxx xxx xxx Learned Senior Counsel, Siddharth Luthra submitted that, […]

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The De Facto Doctrine

Justice Mookerjee held the following in Pulin Behari Das v. King Emperor, 16 CWN 1105. The acts of officers de facto performed by them within the scope of their assumed official authority, in the interest of the public or third persons and not for their own benefit, are generally as valid and binding as if […]

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The Nature of Judicial Power: Hon’ble Justice Sanjiv Khanna

“Justice S.R. Tendolkar, AIR 1958 SC 538 had postulated two conditions which must be satisfied for a classification to withstand a challenge under Article 14, namely: i) the classification should be founded on intelligible differentia which distinguishes persons or things that are grouped together from others left out of the group; and (ii) the differentia […]

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The Doctrine of Public Trust

Tata HDCL proposed ‘Project: Camelot’ in Revenue Estate of Village ­Kansal, Tehsil ­Kharar, District­ Mohali, State of Punjab. “The Doctrine of Public Trust has been considered by this Court in M.C. Mehta v. Kamal Nath, (1997) 1 SCC 388. In Vellore Citizens’ Welfare Forum v. Union of India, (1996) 5 SCC 647 the Court considered […]

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