The Doctrine of Indirect Discrimination

High Courts in India as well as Supreme Court recognize Doctrine of Indirect Discrimination. Only by exercising close scrutiny and exhibiting attentiveness to the possibility of alternatives can a Court ensure, full potential of Doctrine of Indirect Discrimination is realized and not lost in its application. _____ In a case of direct discrimination, judicial enquiry […]

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The Revival of Ray LXIII

Over the last five decades, several decisions have dealt with the fundamental issue of when the process of an examination can stand vitiated. Essentially, the answer to the issue turns upon whether the irregularities in the process have taken place at a systemic level so as to vitiate the sanctity of the process. There are […]

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The Copyright Act, 1957

The expression ‘copyright’ has to be understood only as is stated in Section 14 and not otherwise. It is an exclusive right, which is negative in nature, being a right to restrict others from doing certain acts. The ownership of copyright in a work is different from the ownership of the physical material in which […]

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Civil Sheep & Criminal Wolf

A reading [State of Assam v. Ranga Mahammad, (1967) 1 SCR 454; Jagdish Chander Gupta v. Kajaria Traders (India) Ltd., (1964) 8 SCR 50; Rajasthan State Electricity Board v. Mohan Lal, (1967) 3 SCR 377; CBI v. Braj Bhushan Prasad, (2001) 9 SCC 432; Godfrey Phillips India Ltd. v. State of U.P., (2005) 2 SCC […]

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The Question of Apparent Conflict

One of the meanings of expression ‘inconsistent’ as approved by this Court is mutually repugnant or contradictory. Constitution itself has used the words ‘inconsistency’ and ‘repugnancy’ interchangeably. Things are inconsistent when they cannot stand together at the same time and one law is inconsistent with another law, when the command or power or provision in […]

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Examination of Disasters

25.03.2020 – The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was invoked in India, for the first time, to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic that was then in its initial stages of spreading. LOCKDOWNS varied in scope and nature, depending on the situation on the ground. Disasters are testing times for institutions and individuals, processes and procedures, and policies […]

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The Revival of Ray LX

State of Gujarat v. Shri Ambica Mills Ltd., (1974) 4 SCC 656 has laid down certain principles relating to under-inclusive and over-inclusive classification. This is, no doubt, apart from holding that a law which contravenes fundamental rights of the citizens may continue to be valid as regards non-citizens [See, Bennett Coleman v. Union of India, (1972) 2 […]

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Ratio Decidendi II

It is settled law, only the ratio decidendi is binding as a precedent. Thus, in B. Shama Rao v. Union Territory, Pondicherry, (1967) 2 SCR 650 the Majority Judgment of Shelat J, speaking for himself and other Two Learned Judges held: “It is trite to say that a decision is binding not because of its […]

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Referred to Larger Bench XXV: Doctrine of Separability of Arbitration Agreement

It is well settled, an Arbitration Agreement is distinct and separate; independent from the substantive commercial contract in which it is embedded. The autonomy of the Arbitration Agreement is based on the twin concepts of separability and kompetenz – kompetenz; which, though inter-related, are distinct. The Doctrine of Separability of Arbitration Agreement connotes, the invalidity, […]

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The Doctrine of Election

An election of remedies arises when two concurrent remedies are available and the aggrieved chooses to exercise one, in which event he loses the right to simultaneously exercise the other for the same cause of action. Doctrine of Election was discussed in A.P. State Financial Corporation, (1994) 2 SCC 647; P.R. Deshpande, (1998) 6 SCC […]

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Principles of Natural Justice VII / The Revival of Ray LVIII

The core issue: not to say, consultation should be open ended/indefinite or release all information; disclosure of certain information may violate the right to privacy of individuals/cause breach of national security/impinge on confidentiality; information may be abridged or even denied for larger public interest; there should be good grounds and justification to withhold information; boundaries […]

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Timing of Votes

The disqualification under Section 8 of The Representation of People Act, 1951 is relatable to Article 191(1)(e). Therefore, any interpretation to Section 8 should be in sync with the constitutional scheme. Once the period of disqualification starts running, the seat, hitherto held by the person disqualified, becomes vacant by virtue of Article 190(3). His name […]

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Promissory Estoppel VI

Crabb v. Arun DC, [1976] 1 Ch 179 (Court of Appeal). The requirements of the Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel have also been formulated in ‘Chitty on Contracts’, 32nd Edition. Combe v. Combe, [1951] 2 KB 215 has been noticed to be inconsistent [Wyvern Development, Re, [1974] 1 WLR 1097; Tungsten Electric Co Ltd. v. Tool […]

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Principles of Natural Justice VI

A lot of noise but no music! The present case is a classic one where multiple proceedings have been initiated but have resulted in no culmination over a period just short of a decade. 1. Principles of Natural Justice requires only a substantial compliance and not every miniscule violation would spell illegality [Chairman, Board of […]

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