It is clear, if contract prohibits pre-reference and pendente lite interest, Arbitrator cannot award interest for said period. Clause 17, barring interest, is very clear and categorical. See, Sayeed Ahmed, (2009) 12 SCC 26; Kamatchi Amman Constructions, (2010) 8 SCC 767; Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, (2015) 5 SCC 718; Chittaranjan Maity, (2017) 9 SCC 611. […]Read more "Section 31(7) of The Arbitration Act VII"
Section 9 as originally enacted, has been renumbered as Section 9(1). 2015 Amendment Act has also incorporated Sub-Section (2) and Sub-Section (3). Section 9(1), as amended, enables a party to an Arbitration Agreement to apply to a Court for interim measures of protection before or during Arbitral Proceedings, or at any time after an Arbitral […]Read more "Section 9 of The Arbitration Act"
Ssangyong Engineering, (2019) 15 SCC 131 has in clear terms delineated the limited area for judicial interference, taking into account amendments brought about by 2015 Amendment Act. As has been held in Ssangyong Engineering, mere contravention of substantive law as elucidated in Associate Builders v. Delhi Development Authority, (2015) 3 SCC 49 is no longer […]Read more "Section 34(2A) of The Arbitration Act II"
In Emkay Global Financial Services Ltd. v. Girdhar Sondhi, (2018) 9 SCC 49 a question arose under the pari materia provision contained in Section 34 as to what the expression ‘proof’ means therein. After referring to a number of High Court Judgments, and Section 34, in which the expression “furnishes proof” is now substituted by […]Read more "Section 48 of The Arbitration Act"
Court has referred to party autonomy as being one pillar for Arbitration [Antrix Corporation Ltd. v. Devas Multimedia Pvt. Ltd., (2014) 11 SCC 560; Bharat Aluminium Co. v. Kaiser Aluminium Technical Services Inc., (2016) 4 SCC 126; Centrotrade Minerals & Metal Inc. v. Hindustan Copper Ltd., (2017) 2 SCC 228; PASL Wind Solutions Pvt. Ltd. […]Read more "Emergency Arbitrators"
There can be no doubt, given the law laid down by this Court, Section 34 of The Arbitration Act, 1996 cannot be held to include within it a power to modify an Award. It is important to remember, Section 34 is modelled on The UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, 1985, under which no […]Read more "Section 34 of The Arbitration Act V"
What would constitute ‘patent illegality’ has been elaborated in Associate Builders v. Delhi Development Authority, (2015) 3 SCC 49. Union of India v. Bright Power Projects (India) (P) Ltd., (2015) 9 SCC 695 highlighted, the position of law on grant of interest under Section 31(7) of 1996 Act. Though Secretary, Irrigation Department, Government of Orissa […]Read more "Section 31(7) of The Arbitration Act VI"
My Lord, Two Companies, incorporated in India, can Arbitrate outside India? Yes. It is clear, there can be more than one ratio decidendi to a Judgment. Jacobs v. London County Council, (1950) 1 All ER 737 has been followed in State of Gujarat v. M.P. Jadeja, (2013) 2 SCC 300 and in Shayara Bano v. […]Read more "Seat of Arbitration II"
N.V. International v. State of Assam, (2020) 2 SCC 109 has been wrongly decided and is therefore overruled. For appeals filed under Section 37 of The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 that are governed by Articles 116 and 117 of The Limitation Act, 1963 or Section 13(1A) of The Commercial Courts Act, 2015 a delay […]Read more "Section 37 of The Arbitration Act III"
The 1996 Act has been framed for expeditious resolution of disputes. Various time lines have been provided [Section 8; Section 9(2); Section 13; Section 16(2); Section 34(3)]. The 1996 Act was amended by The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015 to incorporate further provisions for expeditious disposal of Arbitral Proceedings [Section 11(13); Section 29A; Section […]Read more "Section 11(6) of The Arbitration Act IV"
Section 31(1) is couched in mandatory terms. There can be no finality of Arbitral Award, except after it is signed, since signing of the Award gives legal effect and validity to it. The usage of the term ‘shall’ makes it a mandatory requirement. It is not merely a ministerial act, or an empty formality which […]Read more "Section 31(5) of The Arbitration Act"
Two-Judge Bench in ABL International Ltd. v. Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India, (2004) 3 SCC 553 analyzed a long line of precedent [K.N. Guruswamy, AIR 1954 SC 592; Gujarat State Financial Corporation, (1983) 3 SCC 379; Gunwant Kaur, (1969) 3 SCC 769] to conclude, Writs under Article 226 are maintainable for asserting contractual rights […]Read more "Writ Jurisdiction in Contractual Arena"
“Inheritance is in some sort a legal and fictitious continuation of the personality of the dead man for the representation is in some sort identified by the law with him who he represents.” In Chiranjilal Shrilal Goenka, (1993) 2 SCC 507 the primary question arose, whether an Arbitrator appointed by Court, by consent of parties, […]Read more "The Proof of Valid Wills III"
My Lord, Appeal under Section 37(1)(c) would be maintainable against an Order refusing to condone delay in filing an Application under Section 34? Yes. It is important to note, the expression “setting aside or refusing to set aside” an Arbitral Award has to be read with the expression “under Section 34”. A refusal to set […]Read more "Section 37 of The Arbitration Act II"
It is well settled, an Arbitration Agreement is distinct and separate; independent from the substantive commercial contract in which it is embedded. The autonomy of the Arbitration Agreement is based on the twin concepts of separability and kompetenz – kompetenz; which, though inter-related, are distinct. The Doctrine of Separability of Arbitration Agreement connotes, the invalidity, […]Read more "Referred to Larger Bench XXV: Doctrine of Separability of Arbitration Agreement"
An election of remedies arises when two concurrent remedies are available and the aggrieved chooses to exercise one, in which event he loses the right to simultaneously exercise the other for the same cause of action. Doctrine of Election was discussed in A.P. State Financial Corporation, (1994) 2 SCC 647; P.R. Deshpande, (1998) 6 SCC […]Read more "The Doctrine of Election"
Arbitral Process is strictly conditioned upon time limitation. This Court in P. Radha Bai v. P. Ashok Kumar, (2019) 13 SCC 445 observed: “Section 34(3) reflects the principle of unbreakability. According to this ‘unbreakability’ of time-limit and true to the ‘certainty and expediency’ of the Arbitral Awards, any grounds for setting aside the Award that […]Read more "Section 34(3) of The Arbitration Act II"
Mr. Peter Leaver [Queen’s Counsel], Justice V.K. Gupta [Retd.] and Mr. Anthony Houghton [Senior Counsel] delivered their International Arbitral Award in New Delhi, on 12.05.2014. Majority Award [Mr. Peter Leaver and Mr. Anthony Houghton] was in favor of Anglo American Metallurgical Coal Pty Ltd. and Dissenting Award [Justice V.K. Gupta] dismissed the claim of Anglo […]Read more "Section 34 of The Arbitration Act IV / Arbitral Award Dissent"
We overrule the ratio laid down in Himangni Enterprises, (2017) 10 SCC 706 and hold, landlord-tenant disputes are Arbitrable as The Transfer of Property Act, 1882 does not forbid or foreclose Arbitration. However, landlord-tenant disputes covered and governed by Rent Control Legislation would not be Arbitrable when specific Court or Forum has been given exclusive […]Read more "Referred to Larger Bench XVIII Answered: Arbitrability, The Transfer of Property Act"
The Shashoua Principle has been followed repeatedly in a series of decisions [See, BGS SGS Soma JV v. National Hydro Electric Power Corporation Ltd., 2020 (4) SCC 234]. Court, in the facts of this case, is of the opinion that it is inessential to explain or notice the difference between ‘venue’ and ‘seat’. – Hon’ble […]Read more "Venue v. Seat, Arbitration"