Rudra – Shiva

Shiva, who emerged from limitless pillar of fuel-less fire, is visualized sitting under the Pole Star, on a snow-capped mountain, in the shade of a banyan tree. Shiva’s holy city, Kashi, is located at a bend in the river Ganga where it turns and moves northwards instead of southwards. This reverse flow of the river […]

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Referred To Larger Bench XXXIV: The Muslim Women’s Protection Act, 1986

My Lord, Jurisdiction of Family Court for Application of Divorced Muslim Woman for Maintenance under Section 3 of The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986? No. After Shah Bano, (1985) 2 SCC 556 The Muslim Women’s Protection Act, 1986 was enacted with effect from 19.05.1986 as per which a divorced Muslim woman […]

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The Proof of Valid Wills II

A circumstance is ‘suspicious’ when it is not normal. The suspicious features must be ‘real, germane and valid’ and not merely the ‘fantasy of the doubting mind’ [Shivakumar, Civil Appeal No. 6076 of 2009]. An individual factor may not be decisive. If after taking all the factors together, conscience of the Court is not satisfied […]

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A Valid Adoption

“A plain reading of The Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act 1956 would make it clear that compliance of the conditions in Chapter I is mandatory for an adoption to be treated as valid. The consent of the wife and proof of the actual ceremony of adoption are two important conditions. M. Vanaja has failed to […]

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Prohibition of Child Marriage

Section 2(a) of The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 defines ‘child’ as a person who, if a male, has not completed twenty-­one years of age, and if a female, has not completed eighteen years of age. A ‘child marriage’ means a marriage to which either of the contracting parties is a child. Hardev Singh […]

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Customary Divorce

Dungaji had three wives: Kaveribai, Kashibai and Nanibai. Dungaji had declared that his marriage with Kaveribai had been dissolved by way of customary divorce. It was submitted that Dungaji failed to prove and establish the factum of customary divorce; if a customary divorce practice is claimed in a community the same needs to be clearly […]

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Choice of School

In 2006, the marriage of the Appellant-Wife and the Respondent-Husband was solemnized. In 2009, Master Krishav Gautam was born. In 2012, Respondent-Husband filed for divorce. The Trial Court directed that Master Krishav Gautam should be admitted in Col. Satsangi’s Kiran Memorial Public School, New Delhi. Learned Counsel submitted that the boy is not willing to […]

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A Fasid Marriage

“Muslim Law clearly distinguishes between a valid marriage (sahih), void marriage (batil), and invalid/irregular marriage (fasid). Thus, it cannot be stated that a batil (void) marriage and a fasid (invalid/irregular) marriage are one and the same. The marriage of a Muslim Man with a Hindu Woman is neither a valid (sahih) nor a void (batil) […]

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The Proof of Valid Wills I

The execution of a Will is proved not only when the statutory requirements for proving that Will are satisfied but the Will is also found to be ordinarily free from suspicious circumstances [Pragnaben, (2008) 15 SCC 365]. Whether a Will is surrounded by suspicious circumstances or not is essentially a question of fact. “3 Courts […]

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Masterly Concubinage II

“Unlike matrimonial proceedings where strict proof of marriage is essential, in the proceedings under Section 125 CrPC, such strict standard of proof is not necessary as it is summary in nature meant to prevent vagrancy. When the parties live together as husband and wife, there is a presumption that they are legally married couple for […]

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#The377Debate II : 06.09.2018

Navtej Singh Johar v. UOI, [Writ Petition (Criminal) No. 76 of 2016] was filed for declaring Section 377 to be unconstitutional. It was held by:  Dipak Misra CJI and A.M. Khanwilkar J. The phrase ‘against the order of nature’ has neither been defined in any provision of the IPC. What is ‘against the order of nature’? Procreation […]

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A Mensa Et Thoro

Parliament often begins to legislate with remarkable vigor but about the same time it gives up the attempt to govern. It begins to lay down general rules, entrusting its working to Officials/Secretaries of State/Boards of Commissioners/Law Courts, who are endowed with new statutory powers. Once or twice upon a time, Ecclesiastical Courts could pronounce a divorce, ‘a mensa et […]

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