Review of Death Penalty XXI

It would be profitable to refer to Mohd. Mannan v. State of Bihar, (2019) 16 SCC 584 in which it was held, before imposing extreme penalty of Death Sentence, Court should satisfy itself Death Sentence is imperative, as otherwise convict would be a threat to society and there is no possibility of reform or rehabilitation […]

Read more "Review of Death Penalty XXI"

Section 307, Indian Penal Code

It is by now a lucid dictum, for purpose of constituting an offence under Section 307, IPC, there are two ingredients – first, whether there was any intention or knowledge on part of accused to cause death of victim, and, second, such intent or knowledge was followed by some overt actus rea in execution thereof, […]

Read more "Section 307, Indian Penal Code"

The Revival of Ray LXXVI

After Narayan Govind Gavate v. State of Maharashtra, (1977) 1 SCC 133 a ‘discordant note’ came to be struck in Pista Devi, (1986) 4 SCC 251. Chameli Singh, (1996) 2 SCC 549 proceeded to consider decisions in Gavate, Pista Devi and Rajasthan Housing Board, (1993) 2 SCC 84. Chameli Singh was not noticed in Om […]

Read more "The Revival of Ray LXXVI"

Claim of Juvenility

A claim of juvenility may be raised at any stage of a criminal proceeding, even after a final disposal. An application claiming juvenility could be made either before Court or JJ Board. It is neither feasible nor desirable to lay down an abstract formula to determine age of a person. It has to be on […]

Read more "Claim of Juvenility"

Ut Res Magis Valeat Quam Pereat

The act of ‘touching’ sexual part of body or any other act involving ‘physical contact’, if done with ‘sexual intent’, would amount to ‘sexual assault’ within meaning of Section 7 of The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012. Restricting interpretation of words ‘touch’ or ‘physical contact’ to ‘skin to skin contact’ would not […]

Read more "Ut Res Magis Valeat Quam Pereat"

Repugnancy II

An interpreter, to deviate from defined meaning, should record reasons to show word/expression in a particular provision carries a different meaning; contrary context is not to be assumed or accepted easily, in absence of indication and reason to differ from defined meaning. Repugnancy is not indicated and does not arise in context of Clause 22(ix)(a) […]

Read more "Repugnancy II"

Review of Death Penalty XX

High Court of Karnataka confirmed Death Sentence for Irappa Siddappa Murgannavar. Shanti Devi v. State of Rajasthan, (2012) 12 SCC 158 had considered, factum of recovery of body at instance of accused is a strong circumstance for conviction. Similar is Ranjit Kumar Haldar v. State of Sikkim, (2019) 7 SCC 684. On an overall view […]

Read more "Review of Death Penalty XX"

Vicarious Liability

Girdhari Lal Gupta v. D.H. Mehta, (1971) 3 SCC 189; State of Karnataka v. Pratap Chand, (1981) 2 SCC 335; Municipal Corporation of Delhi v. Ram Kishan Rohtagi, (1983) 1 SCC 1; Municipal Corporation of Delhi v. Purshotam Dass Jhunjunwala, (1983) 1 SCC 9; National Small Industries Corporation Limited v. Harmeet Singh Paintal, (2010) 3 […]

Read more "Vicarious Liability"

Preventive Detention Statute II / The Revival of Ray LXXIV

Sarabjeet Singh Mokha is said to have procured fake Remdesivir injections which were administered to patients during COVID-19 pandemic to make illegal profits. Article 22 of the Constitution provides specific protections to undertrials and detainees in India. The communication of grounds is in aid of facilitating right of detenu to submit a representation against ‘order […]

Read more "Preventive Detention Statute II / The Revival of Ray LXXIV"

The Nature of Judicial Power: Pegasus

“If you want to keep a secret, you must also hide it from yourself.” ­- George Orwell, 1984. Orwellian concern. September, 2018 – Citizen Lab released software capabilities of a ‘spyware suite’ called Pegasus, produced by NSO Group. Historically, privacy rights have been ‘property centric’ rather than ‘people centric’. In 1604, in Semayne’s case, 77 […]

Read more "The Nature of Judicial Power: Pegasus"

Section 511, Indian Penal Code

There is a visible distinction between ‘preparation’ and ‘attempt’ to commit an offence and it all depends on statutory edict coupled with nature of evidence produced in a case; stage of ‘preparation’ consists of deliberation, devising or arranging means or measures, which would be necessary; an ‘attempt’ starts immediately after completion of ‘preparation’; ‘preparation’ or […]

Read more "Section 511, Indian Penal Code"

Blood of Human Origin III

Two-Judges in Kansa Behra v. State of Orissa, (1987) 3 SCC 480 observed, “few small blood-stains on clothes of a person may even be of his own blood.” Do remember one Raghav, who had earlier been convicted of murdering his First Wife and Son, based on circumstantial evidence. Dead bodies were/are still missing. Relevant Serologist […]

Read more "Blood of Human Origin III"

The Rules of The Game Principle III

As was subtly recognized, State of Haryana v. Subash Chander Marwaha, (1974) 3 SCC 220, unnoticed in P.K. Ramachandra Iyer, Durgacharan Misra, Umesh Chandra Shukla, Rajendra Bhimrao Mandve and K. Manjusree, carries instructions on the Tej Prakash Pathak issue. Subash Chander Marwaha is crucial to understand the time when the ‘process of ascertaining eligibility’, before […]

Read more "The Rules of The Game Principle III"

Investigation II

Gauri Lankesh was shot dead by unknown assailants, near her house at Rajarajeshwari Nagar [Bengaluru], on 05.09.2017. _____  This is limited to consideration of whether prior approval by Commissioner of Police [Bengaluru City], in connection with offence registered as Crime No. 221/2017, is valid or otherwise. We hold, same does not suffer from any infirmity. […]

Read more "Investigation II"

Investigation I

H N Rishbud v. State of Delhi, (1955) 1 SCR 1150; Ramsinh Bavaji Jadeja v. State of Gujarat, (1994) 2 SCC 685; Union of India v. Prakash P. Hinduja, (2003) 6 SCC 195. What emerges is, an investigation commences upon receipt of information by Police which discloses commission of a cognizable offence. However, mere receipt […]

Read more "Investigation I"


Do note, Mota Bhagwan Asaram was also convicted under Section 377, IPC. The Prisons (Bombay Furlough and Parole) Rules, 1959 were made pursuant to Section 59 of The Prisons Act, 1894 and are applicable in State of Gujarat. State of Maharashtra v. Suresh Pandurang Darvakar, (2006) 4 SCC 776 distinguished parole from furlough. The difference […]

Read more "Furlough"

Settlement Deed Cheque

This is a case of cheques, issued pursuant to a deed of compromise, being dishonoured. The dishonour of cheques, issued subsequent to a settlement agreement, would give rise to a fresh cause of action attracting liability under Section 138 and other remedies under civil law and criminal law. A contrary interpretation would lead to contradictory […]

Read more "Settlement Deed Cheque"