Fraud II

The main departure of The Companies Act, 2013 from statutory regime of The Companies Act, 1956 is specific inclusion of fraud ‘directly’ as a circumstance in which a Company could be wound up [See, Section 271 of 2013 Act, as it now stands after 2016]. Section 271(c) of The Companies Act, 2013 covers three circumstances […]

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Act of God

As many as 35,642 cases of Indian Made Foreign Liquor of different brands got destroyed in fire on 10/04/2003. We need not delve, for present purpose, on classification or various other jurisprudential features of ‘liability’. We are primarily concerned with question of ‘liability’ arising out of ‘negligence’. Without multiplying case law, sufficient it would be […]

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Compassionate Appointment IV

Learned Senior Counsel made a request to wait for a decision. “We do not consider it necessary to do so.” Only after Reference to Larger Bench in State Bank of India v. Sheo Shankar Tewari, (2019) 5 SCC 600 this Court decided Indian Bank v. Promila, (2020) 2 SCC 729; N.C. Santhosh v. State of […]

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Fraud I

As per settled proposition of law, mere mentioning and using of word ‘fraud’/’fraudulent’ is not sufficient to satisfy test of ‘fraud’. Hon’ble Justice Vivian Bose, Bishundeo Narain v. Seogeni Rai, (1951) SCR 548: “Now if there is one rule which is better established than any other, it is – in cases of fraud, undue influence and […]

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Repugnancy II

An interpreter, to deviate from defined meaning, should record reasons to show word/expression in a particular provision carries a different meaning; contrary context is not to be assumed or accepted easily, in absence of indication and reason to differ from defined meaning. Repugnancy is not indicated and does not arise in context of Clause 22(ix)(a) […]

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Vicarious Liability

Girdhari Lal Gupta v. D.H. Mehta, (1971) 3 SCC 189; State of Karnataka v. Pratap Chand, (1981) 2 SCC 335; Municipal Corporation of Delhi v. Ram Kishan Rohtagi, (1983) 1 SCC 1; Municipal Corporation of Delhi v. Purshotam Dass Jhunjunwala, (1983) 1 SCC 9; National Small Industries Corporation Limited v. Harmeet Singh Paintal, (2010) 3 […]

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The Doctrine of Fairness

The word ‘laches’ is derived from French, meaning “remissness and slackness”. A defence of laches can only be allowed when there is no statutory bar. The question as to whether there exists a clear case of laches is one of fact and so also of prejudice. The said principle may not have any application when […]

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Suitability of Candidate III / Honourable Acquittal II

Sessions Court acquitted Methu Meda from charge of kidnapping for ransom. Methu Meda applied for post of Constable in Central Industrial Security Force and got selected through Staff Selection Commission. A mere disclosure of offences alleged and result of trial is not sufficient. In said situation, appointment cannot be compelled.   The expression ‘honourable acquittal’ […]

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Compassionate Appointment III

In service jurisprudence, retrospective seniority cannot be claimed from a date when an employee is not even borne in service. It is also necessary to bear in mind, retrospective seniority, unless directed by Court or expressly provided by applicable Rules, should not be allowed. As in so doing, others who had earlier entered service will […]

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Modified Voluntary Retirement Scheme

The present case is not one of resignation per se but of exercising an option available under Modified Voluntary Retirement Scheme. Clause 5.1 required, the post to be abolished simultaneously with request of voluntary retirement being accepted. This had to be done before disbursing retirement benefits. There was a specific stipulation, no person would be […]

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Compensatory Jurisprudence of Constitutional Courts XII

Krishan Pal Singh was appointed as Clerk-cum-Cashier in Allahabad Bank on 23.09.1985 and his service was confirmed on 24.03.1986. During 1989, he was posted in Aurangabad Branch, District Lakhimpur Kheri, Uttar Pradesh. On 08.02.1989, there was a fire accident. Balak Ram, prime accused, was Krishan’s friend. Alleging involvement in incident relating to burning of Allahabad […]

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Moral Turpitude III

The employer terminated services on non-disclosure of pending criminal case. B. Chinnam Naidu, (2005) 2 SCC 746 observed, when a candidate suppresses material information and/or gives false information, he cannot claim any right for appointment or continuance in service. Daya Shankar Yadav, (2010) 14 SCC 103 observed, purpose of seeking information with respect to antecedents […]

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Relation to State

Constitution Bench of this Court in Marri Chandra Shekhar Rao, (1990) 3 SCC 130 had an occasion to examine, whether Scheduled Castes in relation to a particular State would be entitled to benefits or concessions allowed to Scheduled Castes in matters of education/employment in another State. Court observed, if such a contention is to be […]

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Seniority in Promotion / The Revival of Ray LXVIII

The principle of equality is applicable to employment at all stages and in all respects, namely, initial recruitment, promotion, retirement, payment of pension and gratuity. _____ The seniority­-cum-­merit principle is well established in service jurisprudence and does not need much discussion. Three-Judge Bench, B.V. Sivaiah v. K. Addanki Babu, (1998) 6 SCC 720 observed: “In […]

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Promissory Estoppel VII

The New Okhla Industrial Development Authority is constituted under provisions of The U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976. Regulation 25 of The New Okhla Industrial Development Authority Service Regulations, 1981 states, the age of superannuation of employees. Any enhancement of the age of superannuation would require an amendment of the Service Regulations necessitating prior approval […]

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