High Courts in India as well as Supreme Court recognize Doctrine of Indirect Discrimination. Only by exercising close scrutiny and exhibiting attentiveness to the possibility of alternatives can a Court ensure, full potential of Doctrine of Indirect Discrimination is realized and not lost in its application. _____ In a case of direct discrimination, judicial enquiry […]Read more "The Doctrine of Indirect Discrimination"
Union Territory, Chandigarh Administration v. Pradeep Kumar, (2018) 1 SCC 797 dealt with the expression “honourable acquittal”. It was opined, acquittal in a criminal case was not conclusive for suitability of the candidate concerned and it could not always be inferred from an acquittal or discharge that the person was falsely involved or has no […]Read more "Suitability of Candidate II / Honourable Acquittal"
Two-Judge Bench in ABL International Ltd. v. Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India, (2004) 3 SCC 553 analyzed a long line of precedent [K.N. Guruswamy, AIR 1954 SC 592; Gujarat State Financial Corporation, (1983) 3 SCC 379; Gunwant Kaur, (1969) 3 SCC 769] to conclude, Writs under Article 226 are maintainable for asserting contractual rights […]Read more "Writ Jurisdiction in Contractual Arena"
A transaction which is sham or collusive would only create an illusion that money has been disbursed to a borrower with the object of receiving consideration… when in fact the parties have entered into the transaction with a different or an ulterior motive. In other words, the real agreement between the parties is something other […]Read more "Sham Transactions"
The Constitution Bench in Jammu & Kashmir v. Triloki Nath Khosa, (1974) 1 SCC 19 considered the question, whether persons drawn from different sources and integrated into one class can be classified on the basis of their Educational Qualifications for promotion. The Constitution Bench answered the question in the affirmative holding, providing for Graduates to […]Read more "Educational Qualifications in Promotion / The Revival of Ray LIX"
The core issue: not to say, consultation should be open ended/indefinite or release all information; disclosure of certain information may violate the right to privacy of individuals/cause breach of national security/impinge on confidentiality; information may be abridged or even denied for larger public interest; there should be good grounds and justification to withhold information; boundaries […]Read more "Principles of Natural Justice VII / The Revival of Ray LVIII"
It is true, strict rules of evidence are not applicable to departmental enquiry proceedings. The only requirement of law is, the allegation against the delinquent must be established by such evidence acting upon which a reasonable person acting reasonably and with objectivity may arrive at a finding upholding the gravity of the charge against the […]Read more "Disciplinary Proceedings IV"
The sheer amount of time and effort that is dedicated to household work by individuals, who are more likely to be women than men, is not surprising when one considers the plethora of activities a housemaker undertakes. The conception that housemakers do not ‘work’ or that they do not add economic value to the household […]Read more "Value of Housework"
The short question is, whether the acceptance of a conditional offer with a further condition results in a concluded contract, irrespective of whether the offerer accepts the further condition proposed by the acceptor. The offer and acceptance of an offer must be absolute. It can give no room for doubt. The offer and acceptance must […]Read more "Acceptor’s Condition"
I am also of the opinion that the views expressed by Rajasthan High Court, Gujarat High Court, Bombay High Court and Uttarakhand High Court, termed as ‘first view’, is the correct one and not the view expressed by Allahabad and Madhya Pradesh, called as ‘second view’. [Hon’ble Justice S. Ravindra Bhat] Finally, we must say […]Read more "Vertical and Horizontal Reservation"
We will first discuss the scope of interference by a High Court in exercise of its Writ Jurisdiction with respect to disciplinary proceedings. State of Andhra Pradesh v. Chitra Venkata Rao, (1975) 2 SCC 557 reiterated the principles of State of Andhra Pradesh v. S. Sree Rama Rao, AIR 1963 SC 1723. “An error of […]Read more "Writ Jurisdiction of High Courts II / The Revival of Ray LV"
Commissioner of Police, New Delhi v. Mehar Singh, (2013) 7 SCC 685 while considering a case of antecedents verification, for appointment into Delhi Police Service, observed, a candidate wishing to join the Police Force must be a person having impeccable character and integrity. In a case where candidates have been acquitted in a criminal case, […]Read more "Suitability of Candidate I"
It is trite to say that often, a proposition of law as laid down in a case is as good as the facts of the case. We say so in view of the fact that matters of education must be left to educationists, of course subject to being governed by the relevant statutes and regulations. […]Read more "Matters of Education"
“It is trite to say that there cannot be any inherent right to compassionate appointment but rather, it is a right based on certain criteria, especially to provide succor to a needy family. This has to be in terms of the applicable policy as existing on the date of demise, unless a subsequent policy is […]Read more "Compassionate Appointment II"
Pravin Kumar (‘Kumar’) joined the Central Industrial Security Force in January, 1995 as a Sub-Inspector. Eventually, he was deployed in the Crime and Intelligence Wing. As evidenced, Kumar was specifically entrusted with conducting surprise searches and taking strict action against anyone indulging in corruption. On 28.02.1999, Constable Ram Avtar Sharma (‘Sharma’) was commuting in a […]Read more "Disciplinary Proceedings III"
Muthukumar is said to be the kingpin involved in this crime and is absconding. Ashoo appears to be a victim of Muthukumar’s plot. The standard of proof in a departmental proceeding, being based on preponderance of probability, is somewhat lower than the standard of proof in a criminal proceeding where the case has to be […]Read more "Disciplinary Proceedings II"
“Magma General Insurance Company Ltd., (2018) 18 SCC 130 explained the concept of ‘consortium’. United India Insurance Company Ltd. v. Satvinder Kaur, (2020) SCC Online 410 reaffirmed the view. Three-Judge Bench further laid down that, ‘loss of love and affection’ is comprehended in ‘loss of consortium’. Hence, there is no justification to award compensation towards […]Read more "Consortium II"
When it comes to the penalty of blacklisting, the classic formulation of principles in regard to blacklisting have been laid down in Erusian Equipment & Chemicals Ltd. v. State of West Bengal, (1975) 1 SCC 70. “Equality of opportunity should apply to matters of public contracts. An ordinary individual can choose not to deal with […]Read more "The Revival of Ray XLIX"
Gopal Prasad was appointed as Calligraphist-cum-Assistant of the Bihar School Examination Board on 20.05.1970, at about 15½ years of age. He may have been a minor, but certainly not a toddler. It is absurd that any rational employer, far less a statutory body, would appoint a toddler. The hypothesis of appointment of a toddler is […]Read more "Referred to Larger Bench XXIII: Consequential Benefits of Gopal Prasad"
“State of U.P. v. Sri Shyam Lal Sharma, (1971) 2 SCC 514 laid down various propositions regarding the implication and effect of the orders of compulsory retirement in the following terms. “First, in ascertaining whether the order of compulsory retirement is one of punishment it has to be ascertained whether in the order of compulsory […]Read more "The Revival of Ray XLIII"