It is not always affordable to approach a Court of Law. Even if approached, it may be years before a final decision. Imtiyaz Ahmad v. State of Uttar Pradesh, (2012) 2 SCC 688 had a simple answer: “Pendency is merely a localized problem, in the sense that it affects some High Courts far more than […]Read more "The Persistent Illusion of Judge-Strength"
Constitution Benches are constituted to resolve a constitutional issue, harmonize conflicting views and settle the law. Constitution Bench decisions might only be reconsidered by a Constitution Bench of a Larger Strength and that too in exceptional and compelling circumstances. Bench of Lesser Strength cannot revisit the proposition laid down by at least Three Constitution Benches. […]Read more "Judicial – Bench Strength – Decorum II"
Court should be over cautious to place reliance on a piece of evidence with which the concerned witness has not been confronted despite an opportunity to do so. As held by this Court in Sita Ram Bhau Patil v. Ramchandra Nago Patil, (1977) 2 SCC 49 an admission must not only be proved but also […]Read more "The Revival of Ray LIV"
There is a body of case law which clarifies, sans a statutory duty, a positive direction to do something, in a specific manner, cannot be given. It must be shown, there is a statute which imposes a legal duty and the aggrieved party has a legal right under the statute to enforce its performance. – […]Read more "The Nature of Judicial Power: Hon’ble Justice S. Ravindra Bhat"
The definition of ‘shared household’ in Section 2(s) of The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 is an exhaustive definition. The first part begins with ‘means’, which is undoubtedly an exhaustive definition, and the second part begins with ‘includes’, which is explanatory of what was meant by the definition. The use of both […]Read more "A “Means and Includes” Definition V"
The 90 day period indicated by the first proviso to Section 167(2) of The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 can be extended up to a maximum period of 180 days under the first proviso in Section 43-D(2)(b) of The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. As long as an application, which need not even be in […]Read more "Default Bail"
A ‘consent’ given under fear of injury is not a ‘consent’ in the eyes of law. We are not persuaded to accept the solitary statement that, at the time of the first alleged offence, ‘consent’ was obtained under fear of injury. A ‘consent’ given under a misconception of fact is no ‘consent’ in the eyes […]Read more "Section 90, Indian Penal Code"
There can be no doubt, the principle which appears to have evolved over a period of time is, the law frowns upon determining a day with reference to its fractions. The principle, ‘fractions of the day’ are eschewed from consideration, is not a universal principle which knows no exceptions. Clearly the context and the purpose […]Read more "Day-Fraction"
The law will assist only those who are vigilant about their rights and not those who sleep over them. The importance of legal maxims as guiding principles can hardly be underestimated. “The principle forming the basis of Section 10(1) of The General Clauses Act, 1897 also finds a place in Section 4 of The Limitation […]Read more "Vigilantibus Non Dormientibus Jura Subveniunt"
The issue of limitation for enforcement of foreign awards, being procedural in nature, is subject to the law of the forum where the foreign award is sought to be enforced. The Arbitration Act, 1996 does not specify any period of limitation for filing an application for enforcement of a foreign award. Section 43 provides, The […]Read more "The Plea of Limitation XIV: Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards / The Revival of Ray LIII"
“Diwan Bros. v. Central Bank of India, (1976) 3 SCC 800 referred to the well-known dictum of Lord Buckmaster in Barras v. Aberdeen Steam Trawling and Fishing Company, 1933 AC 402. “It has long been a well-established principle to be applied in the consideration of Acts of Parliament that where a word of doubtful meaning […]Read more "Lord Buckmaster"
“We cannot obviously feed into a judicial computer all such… astrological imponderables in an imperfect and undulating society.” – Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab, (1982) 3 SCC 24. _____ Rule 55A of The Motor Vehicles Rules, 1994, framed and published by Madhya Pradesh, prescribes ₹ 10,000/- for reservation of a large series of registration […]Read more "Life of Numbers"
Most jurists draw distinction between ‘direct application’ of treaties in domestic law, and national legal systems that mandate and require ‘act of transformation’ for an international treaty to apply and be a part of domestic law; ‘direct application’ means and mandates that the treaty norms, either wholly or to some extent, are directly treated as […]Read more "Act of Transformation"
“Doctrine of Contemporanea Expositio is applied as a guide to the interpretation of a statute or even document by referring to the exposition that the same had received from competent authority at the relevant point of time. An exposition standing for a long length of time is considered to be a law settled and is […]Read more "The Doctrine of Contemporanea Expositio II"
E.P. Royappa, (1974) 4 SCC 3 is clear that the burden of establishing mala fides is very heavily on the person who alleges it. Courts should not uphold a plea of mala fides on the basis of mere probabilities. _____ It is said, a Judge must not alter the material of which the Act is […]Read more "The Tenth Schedule"
“As per Concise Oxford English Dictionary (Twelfth South Asian Edition, Page 307), one of the meanings assigned to the verb ‘consume’, derived from latin ‘consumere’ (con – ‘altogether’ + sumere – ‘take out’), is ‘eat, drink or ingest – use up – (especially of a fire) completely destroy’. The noun derived from this verb is […]Read more "Consume"
“Ramnath & Co., who had been engaged in providing services to certain foreign buyers of frozen seafood and/or marine products and had received service charges from such foreign buyers/enterprises in foreign exchange, claimed deduction under Section 80-O of The Income Tax Act, 1961. As noticed, Section 80-O of the Act has a unique purpose and […]Read more "The Dictionary Meaning / The Revival of Ray XLVII"
“The expression ‘shall not be necessary’ is used in various statutes and even in the Constitution. This expression is used in the first proviso to Article 311(2) and in proviso to Article 320(3). Some of the cases in which similar expression occurring in statutes was taken into account and effect was given to its plain […]Read more "Shall Not Be Necessary / The Revival of Ray XLV"
“S. Ambika Devi entered into a tripartite agreement with M/s. Nandan Biomatrix Ltd. and its franchisee M/s. Herbz India. She purchased 750 kilograms of wet musli at the rate of Rs. 400/- per kilogram. M/s. Nandan Biomatrix Ltd was to buy back the produce at a minimum price of Rs. 1,000/- per kilogram. It […]Read more "Harassment of Agriculturists"
“Reliance has been placed on Sri Nasiruddin v. State Transport Appellate Tribunal, (1975) 2 SCC 671. The word ‘or’ was given grammatical meaning. It was held that the word ‘or’ cannot be read as ‘and’. They should be considered in an ordinary sense. If two different interpretations are possible, the Court will adopt that which […]Read more "Article No. 800: The Revival of Ray XL / Disjunctive, Conjunctive II"