‘Judgment’ means a judicial opinion which tells the story of the case; what the case is about; how the Court is resolving the case and why. ‘Judgment’ should be coherent, systematic and logically organized. It should enable the reader to trace the fact to a logical conclusion on the basis of legal principles. Many times […]Read more "Judgment"
Philips India Limited v. Labour Court, Madras, (1985) 3 SCC 103; Balasinor Nagrik Cooperative Bank Limited v. Babubhai Shankerlal Pandya, (1987) 1 SCC 606; Mohan Kumar Singhania v. Union of India, 1992 Supp (1) SCC 594; Sultana Begum v. Prem Chand Jain, (1997) 1 SCC 373; Jagdish Singh v. Lt. Governor, Delhi, (1997) 4 SCC […]Read more "Backdrop of Dominant Purpose"
Umabai v. Nilkanth Dhondiba Chavan, (2005) 6 SCC 243 and Tulsi v. Chandrika Prasad, (2006) 8 SCC 322 were not brought to notice of this Court in Vanchalabai Raghunath Ithape v. Shankarrao Baburao Bhilare, (2013) 7 SCC 173. In absence of consideration, we find Vanchalabai Raghunath Ithape will not lay down a binding precedent. – […]Read more "Binding Precedent"
The nation continues to wait, and is losing patience. A political party can always give a reason, a candidate with criminal antecedents is found to be more suitable than a person who does not have criminal antecedents. If the political party is of the prima facie opinion, a candidate has been falsely implicated, it can […]Read more "Monstrosity of Winnability II"
Frances Coralie Mullin v. W.C. Khambra, (1980) 2 SCR 1095; Vijay Narain Singh v. State of Bihar, (1984) 3 SCC 14; Union of India v. Yumnam Anand, (2007) 10 SCC 190; Yumman Ongbi Lembi Leima v. State of Manipur, (2012) 2 SCC 176; Mungala Yadamma v. State of A.P., (2012) 2 SCC 386. In an […]Read more "Preventive Detention Statute / The Revival of Ray LXIX"
In Dilworth v. Commissioner of Stamps, (1899) AC 99 Privy Council, dealing with a definition which incorporated the word ‘include’, said, “The word ‘include’ is very generally used in interpretation clauses in order to enlarge the meaning; and when it is so used these words or phrases must be construed as comprehending, not only such […]Read more "A “Means and Includes” Definition VII"
Section 389(1), CrPC allows Court to release a convicted person on bail. The factors that govern grant of suspension of sentence under Section 389(1) have been discussed by this Court in Atul Tripathi v. State of U.P., (2014) 9 SCC 177. Ramji Prasad v. Rattan Kumar Jaiswal, (2002) 9 SCC 366 observed, in cases involving […]Read more "Cancellation of Bail"
“The Strict Liability Rule under Common Law is a relic of the past and should not be given effect in the Indian context.” – Justice Mohan M. Shantanagoudar, Taj Mahal Hotel v. United India Insurance Co. Ltd., (2020) 2 SCC 224. _____ There is certainly a phantom thread concerning the Rule of Strict Liability and […]Read more "Be Kind Rewind, Strict Liability"
It is to be considered whether the word ‘shall’ used in Section 12 of The Disaster Management Act, 2005 is required to be interpreted and considered as ‘shall’ or ‘may’ and whether it is ‘mandatory’ or ‘directory/discretionary’. The word ‘shall’ is used twice. Cases are not wanting where the words ‘may’, ‘shall’ and ‘must’ are […]Read more "May & Shall II"
A competent Legislature can always validate a law which has been declared by Courts to be invalid, provided the infirmities and vitiating factors noticed in the declaratory Judgment are removed or cured. Such a validating law can also be made retrospective. All that Legislature does is to usher in a valid law with retrospective effect […]Read more "Retrospective Validating Statute"
The first essential condition as incorporated in Section 364A is: “whoever kidnaps or abducts any person or keeps a person in detention after such kidnapping or abduction.” The second condition begins with conjunction ‘and’. The second condition has also two parts, i.e., (a) threatens to cause death or hurt to such person or (b) by […]Read more "Section 364A, Indian Penal Code"
A clear distinction is made between ‘prohibited goods’ and ‘other goods’. As has rightly been pointed out, the latter part of Section 125 of The Customs Act, 1962 obligates release of confiscated goods (i.e., other than ‘prohibited goods’) against redemption fine. But, the earlier part of this provision makes no such compulsion as regards ‘prohibited […]Read more "Discretion in Absolute Confiscation of Prohibited Goods"
“What’s in a name?“, said Juliet. It conveys, natural characteristics of an individual are more important than his/her artificial/acquired characteristics. A poetic statement as it certainly is, it does not go in tune with significance of a ‘name’ in marking identity of an individual in his/her societal transactions. An individual must be in complete control […]Read more "Names in CBSE Certificates"
Time fleets, generations grow, society changes, values and needs also change by time. There can be no denial, law should change with changing time and changing needs of society. Famous words of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. in Towne v. Eisner, 245 US 425 (1918): “Word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged; it is […]Read more "Precedential Certainty / The Revival of Ray LXVI"
Repugnancy can be looked at from three distinct perspectives. The first is where provision of a State enactment is directly in conflict with a law enacted by Parliament. Compliance with one is impossible along with obedience to the other. The second is where regulation of subject matter by Parliament is so complete as a code, […]Read more "Repugnancy"
Lord Hoffmann in Investors Compensation Scheme Limited v. West Bromwich Building Society, 1998 (1) AIR 98 summarized broad principles of interpretation of contract. “Interpretation is the ascertainment of the meaning which the document would convey to a reasonable person having all the background knowledge which would reasonably have been available to the parties in the […]Read more "Well-Known Principles of Interpretation II"
Constitution Bench in T.M.A. Pai Foundation, (2002) 8 SCC 481 has expounded, private unaided school management must have absolute autonomy to determine school fees. The consistent view has been restated and enunciated by Constitution Bench in Modern Dental College and Research Centre, (2016) 7 SCC 353 in Paragraph 75. Though fee can be fixed by […]Read more "Permissible School Fees"
In the present case, we are concerned with Article 224A. Krishan Gopal v. Shri Prakash Chandra, (1974) 1 SCC 128 observed, if a person appointed under Article 224A was not considered to be a Judge of the High Court for the purpose of jurisdiction, powers and privileges, the question of appointing such a person would […]Read more "An Alive Article 224A / The Revival of Ray LXV"
My Lord, Two Companies, incorporated in India, can Arbitrate outside India? Yes. It is clear, there can be more than one ratio decidendi to a Judgment. Jacobs v. London County Council, (1950) 1 All ER 737 has been followed in State of Gujarat v. M.P. Jadeja, (2013) 2 SCC 300 and in Shayara Bano v. […]Read more "Seat of Arbitration II"
Courts continue to struggle with the humongous pendency under Section 138 of The Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881. Offences that are committed as part of the same transaction can be tried jointly as per Section 220 of The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. What is meant by ‘same transaction’ is not defined. Indeed, it would always […]Read more "Same Transaction"